Live as if this is all there is. Gentleness can only be expected from the strong. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong. Strong men believe in cause and effect.
Perceptions of technology Science and technology Among the insights that arise from this review of the history of technology is the light it throws on the distinction between science and technology. The history of technology is longer than and distinct from the history of science.
Technology is the systematic study of techniques for making and doing things; science is the systematic attempt to understand and interpret the world.
While technology is concerned with the fabrication and use of artifactsscience is devoted to the more conceptual enterprise of understanding the environmentand it depends upon the comparatively sophisticated skills of literacy and numeracy.
Such skills became available only with the emergence of the great world civilizations, so it is possible to say that science began with those civilizations, some 3, years bce, whereas technology is as old as humanlike life.
Science and technology developed as different and separate activities, the former being for several millennia a field of fairly abstruse speculation practiced by a class of aristocratic philosophers, while the latter remained a matter of essentially practical concern to craftsmen of many types.
There were points of intersection, such as the use of mathematical concepts in building and irrigation work, but for the most part the functions of scientist and technologist to use these modern terms retrospectively remained distinct in the ancient cultures.
The situation began to change during the medieval period of development in the West — cewhen both technical innovation and scientific understanding interacted with the stimuli of commercial expansion and a flourishing urban culture.
The robust growth of technology in these centuries could not fail to attract the interest of educated men. By emphasizing a practical role for science in this way, Bacon implied a harmonization of science and technology, and he made his intention explicit by urging scientists to study the methods of craftsmen and urging craftsmen to learn more science.
Bacon, with Descartes and other contemporaries, for the first time saw man becoming the master of nature, and a convergence between the traditional pursuits of science and technology was to be the way by which such mastery could be achieved. Yet the wedding of science and technology proposed by Bacon was not soon consummated.
Over the next years, carpenters and mechanics—practical men of long standing—built iron bridges, steam engines, and textile machinery without much reference to scientific principles, while scientists—still amateurs—pursued their investigations in a haphazard manner.
But the body of men, inspired by Baconian principles, who formed the Royal Society in London in represented a determined effort to direct scientific research toward useful ends, first by improving navigation and cartographyand ultimately by stimulating industrial innovation and the search for mineral resources.
Similar bodies of scholars developed in other European countries, and by the 19th century scientists were moving toward a professionalism in which many of the goals were clearly the same as those of the technologists.
Thus, Justus von Liebig of Germany, one of the fathers of organic chemistry and the first proponent of mineral fertilizer, provided the scientific impulse that led to the development of synthetic dyes, high explosives, artificial fibres, and plastics, and Michael Faradaythe brilliant British experimental scientist in the field of electromagnetism, prepared the ground that was exploited by Thomas A.
Edison and many others. The role of Edison is particularly significant in the deepening relationship between science and technology, because the prodigious trial-and-error process by which he selected the carbon filament for his electric lightbulb in resulted in the creation at Menlo Park, N.
From this achievement the application of scientific principles to technology grew rapidly. It led easily to the engineering rationalism applied by Frederick W. Taylor to the organization of workers in mass productionand to the time-and-motion studies of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth at the beginning of the 20th century.
It provided a model that was applied rigorously by Henry Ford in his automobile assembly plant and that was followed by every modern mass-production process.
It pointed the way to the development of systems engineeringoperations researchsimulation studies, mathematical modeling, and technological assessment in industrial processes. This was not just a one-way influence of science on technology, because technology created new tools and machines with which the scientists were able to achieve an ever-increasing insight into the natural world.Lord Alfred Tennyson as a Victorian The Victorian age was an age where many changes occurred socially, economically, and industrially.
People began to explore into areas such as the earth, the human body, and how to benefit the daily lives of individuals. "Daisies smell-less, yet most quaint, And sweet thyme true, Primrose, first born child of Ver, Merry Spring-time's harbinger." - Francis Beaumont, Two Noble Kinsmen "For every person who has ever lived there has come, at last, a spring he will never see.
The HyperTexts English Poetry Timeline and Chronology English Literature Timeline and Chronology World Literature Timeline and Chronology This is a timeline of English poetry and literature, from the earliest Celtic, Gaelic, Druidic, Anglo-Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman works, to the present day.
Essays and criticism on Alfred, Lord Tennyson, including the works “The Lotos-Eaters”, “Ulysses”, The Princess, Idylls of the King and Maud, In Memoriam - Critical Survey of Poetry: British.
YOU CAN Do all the good you can In all the ways you can In all the places you can At all the times you can To all the people you can As long as ever you can.
Thomas Nagel () is a prominent American philosopher, author of numerous articles and books, and currently University Professor of Philosophy and Law at New York University where he has taught since Consider next the argument that our lives are absurd because we live in a tiny speck of a.