Prewriting Strategies Pre-writing strategies use writing to generate and clarify ideas. While many writers have traditionally created outlines before beginning writing, there are other possible prewriting activities. Jot down all the possible terms that emerge from the general topic you are thinking about.
Stages in psychological development, steps in installing software or carrying out a marketing plan, or processes in science or historical change, for example, could all be described in a process paper.
How-to's and explanations There are two kinds of process papers. The author of a how-to paper intends that, after reading it, the reader will be able to carry out the steps in order to accomplish something.
For example, the writer of software installation instructions intends the reader to follow the steps to successfully install a program.
Here is an example: How-to There are several steps you can take to get better help on your papers from an English tutor.
First, make sure you spell check and proofread your own paper, making as many corrections and improvements as you can. That way, you won't waste time discussing diction "problems" that are really just typing errors. Next, read your paper again, and underline two or three sentences that you are uncomfortable with and would like to improve.
At the same time, formulate two or three specific questions to ask the tutor, such as, "What is a comma splice, and how do I fix it?
Similarly, if you have already received feedback from your instructor on this or earlier papers, bring in the instructor's written comments if possible.
Finally, don't ask the tutor for proofreading or editing; the tutor's job is to help you master the skills necessary to do your own proofreading and editing. Instead, try asking for "feedback.
The second kind of process paper is an explanation. The writer of an explanation describes in narrative form how something occurs, without actually expecting the reader to carry out steps.
The author of a paper describing how a nuclear fission power plant works, for example, probably does not expect readers to be able to manage one based on his explanation. To illustrate, the following explanation describes the development of insecticide resistance in the garden: Explanation Even non-organic gardeners should avoid broad-spectrum pesticides as much as possible.
Broad-spectrum pesticides immediately kill the most vulnerable members of an insect population, giving the short-term impression that the infestation has been successfully overcome. However, a few stronger and more resistant insects always remain or recover.
Poison-resistant insects breed with each other, producing offspring that are themselves more resistant than the previous generation. After a few cycles, the local insect population has become largely resistant to the insecticide.
Meanwhile, the poison has also spread to the local bird population through the birds' feeding on insecticide-drenched insects.
Birds that would have helped naturally control the insects die or fail to reproduce. And if the gardener switches to a new broad-spectrum pesticide, the development of pesticide resistance widens to accommodate the new product as well.
Identifying and organizing steps Prewriting for process papers should focus on identifying the steps or stages in the process and putting them in logical order. The organization for process papers is sequential; the steps of the process are set forth in chronological order.
An explanation process paper may end up looking a lot like a cause and effect paper, since cause-effect relationships are by nature sequential. There is room for overlap among various modes of writing, and seldom does a piece of writing "purely" represent one mode only.
Once you have identified the steps, list them in sequential order. If there is a trick to writing a process paper, it is to take the time to look at the steps you have listed as if you had never seen them before.
Imagine you know nothing of the process you plan to describe. Read over your steps critically to see whether you have omitted anything.
Sometimes the most ordinary processes are the most difficult to describe, as any writer of the "how to tie a shoelace" exercise knows! If you can, try following your own steps to the letter to see if they do, in fact, bring about the desired result.
No cheating-if you must do something not already on your list of steps, add it.ClassZone Book Finder. Follow these simple steps to find online resources for your book. Prewriting and Outlining Get tips on developing and outlining your topic.
Freewriting: A time limit is also useful in this exercise. Using a blank piece of paper or your word-processing program, summarize your topic in a sentence and keep writing. Clustering: This is another way to record your thoughts and observations for a paragraph.
Each of these titles is available under a Creative Commons license (consult the individual text for the license specifics). Click on the title to view the chapter abstract and a downloadable PDF of the chapter.
Drafting, Revising, and Editing How to Get the Dead Dogs and Leaning Chocolate Cakes out of Your Paper Genya Erling Trish O’Kane. Introduction.
You can think of writing like baking a chocolate cake except that you are going to bake three or four chocolate cakes. Successful peer conferences are a breeze with this narrative writing checklist!
Students will review their own writing and a partner's writing, checking for correct punctuation, capitalization, complete sentences, and staying on topic. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.