Where are you trying to go? Where are you now? How can you get there?
Qualitatively identical to lower animals, but quantitatively superior. Organ that evolved to acquire knowledge by making sense of the world. Uniquely human, qualitatively different from lower animals. Unique among species for developing language, tools, and education.
Nature of knowledge epistemology Hierarchically organized associations that present an accurate but incomplete representation of the world. Assumes that the sum of the components of knowledge is the same as the whole.
Essentially these are the higher-level structures that are constructed to assimilate new info to existing structure and as the structures accommodate more new info.
Knowledge is represented by ability to solve new problems. Distributed across people, communities, and physical environment. Represents culture of community that continues to create it.
To know means to be attuned to the constraints and affordances of systems in which activity occurs. Knowledge is represented in the regularities of successful activity.
Nature of learning the process by which knowledge is increased or modified Forming and strengthening cognitive or S-R associations. Generation of knowledge by 1 exposure to pattern, 2 efficiently recognizing and responding to pattern 3 recognizing patterns in other contexts.
Engaging in active process of making sense of "rationalizing" the environment. Mind applying existing structure to new experience to rationalize it. Increasing ability to participate in a particular community of practice.
Initiation into the life of a group, strengthening ability to participate by becoming attuned to constraints and affordances. Features of authentic assessment Assess knowledge components. Focus on mastery of many components and fluency. Use psychometrics to standardize. Assess extended performance on new problems.
Credit varieties of excellence. Assess participation in inquiry and social practices of learning e. Assessments should be integrated into larger environment. Controversy[ edit ] Concerns over how best to apply assessment practices across public school systems have largely focused on questions about the use of high-stakes testing and standardized tests, often used to gauge student progress, teacher quality, and school- district- or statewide educational success.
No Child Left Behind[ edit ] For most researchers and practitioners, the question is not whether tests should be administered at all—there is a general consensus that, when administered in useful ways, tests can offer useful information about student progress and curriculum implementation, as well as offering formative uses for learners.
To receive federal school funding, states had to give these assessments to all students at select grade level. These tests align with state curriculum and link teacher, student, district, and state accountability to the results of these tests.
Proponents of NCLB argue that it offers a tangible method of gauging educational success, holding teachers and schools accountable for failing scores, and closing the achievement gap across class and ethnicity.
High-stakes testing The assessments which have caused the most controversy in the U. Opponents say that no student who has put in four years of seat time should be denied a high school diploma merely for repeatedly failing a test, or even for not knowing the required material.
In an exercise designed to make children comfortable about testing, a Spokane, Washington newspaper published a picture of a monster that feeds on fear.
Standardized tests all students take the same test under the same conditions often use multiple-choice tests for these reasons. Orlich criticizes the use of expensive, holistically graded tests, rather than inexpensive multiple-choice "bubble tests", to measure the quality of both the system and individuals for very large numbers of students.
The use of IQ tests has been banned in some states for educational decisions, and norm-referenced testswhich rank students from "best" to "worst", have been criticized for bias against minorities.
Traditional assessment practices, however, focus in large part on the individual and fail to account for knowledge-building and learning in context. As researchers in the field of assessment consider the cultural shifts that arise from the emergence of a more participatory culturethey will need to find new methods of applying assessments to learners.
Students decide for themselves how to measure their progress as self-starting learners as a process of self-evaluation: However, they admit it makes the process more difficult, but that such hardship is part of the students learning to make their own way, set their own standards and meet their own goals.
The no-grading and no-rating policy helps to create an atmosphere free of competition among students or battles for adult approval, and encourages a positive cooperative environment amongst the student body.
Each student writes on the topic of how they have prepared themselves for adulthood and entering the community at large. This thesis is submitted to the Assembly, who reviews it. The final stage of the thesis process is an oral defense given by the student in which they open the floor for questions, challenges and comments from all Assembly members.The theory and practice of writing assessment is continually informed by significant publications in professional journals and by presentations at regional and national conferences.
The easy availability of this research to practitioners makes ignorance of its content reprehensible. Speaking and listening, reading and writing assessment criteria for levels 1 to 8 Print Assessment criteria for assessing pupils' progress in speaking and listening, reading and writing, to support teachers in making periodic assessments throughout Key Stages 1 to 4.
The Guidelines for Integrated Assessment is aimed at providers of education and training and the practitioners responsible for the delivery and assessment of learning.
The purpose of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of assessment. Writing assessment is useful primarily as a means of improving teaching and learning.
The primary purpose of any assessment should govern its design, its implementation, and the generation and dissemination of its results.
ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES AND DEFINITIONS of student writing, diagrams, graphs, tables, charts, posters, experiments, and When students become involved in practical or mathematic investigations, assessment activities and/or questions can be presented to students without their awareness of any difference between the assessment and .
Assessment for learning has been a priority for development, for the National Strategies, for several years and is an important part of the programme to improve teaching, learning and pupils’ achievement.
1 Since , the National Strategy.