Unlike the libertarian case for open bordersthis case relies more heavily on an empirical evaluation of migration policy. People may agree with the underlying moral premises but not the utilitarian case, because of disputes about the consequences of open borders.
Because organ allocation decisions determine who lives and who dies, accusations of unethical transplant distribution practices raise public concern and directly impact organ donation rates. Inthe National Organ Transplantation Act defined organs as a "scarce public resource," the distribution of which should be governed "by criteria based on need, effectiveness, and fairness that are publicly stated and publicly defended" .
This article looks at how Illegal immigrants and utilitarianism transplantation guidelines sidestep the question of whether immigrants can receive organs.
Do the guidelines meet various standards for justice and ethical treatment of illegal immigrants? If not, what is the possible impact of having unjust organ allocation policies?
Designation of Immigration Status An individual granted permission by the U. There is regulation, however, regarding non-resident aliens. Member transplant centers where more than 5 percent of organ donation recipients are non-resident aliens are subject to review according to current UNOS United Network of Organ Sharing policy.
UNOS is the federally appointed agent that coordinates all aspects of organ donation, from placing patients on the waiting list to allocating organs. In all likelihood, this policy was established to prevent well-connected foreign citizens from coming to the U. The UNOS concern over this matter seems misplaced, however; the number of non-resident alien organ recipients from to was only 3, oftotal recipients—less than 1 percent of all transplants .
The Evidence about Immigrants and Organ Transplantion Looking at heart transplantation, King and co-authors found that, at the time of donation, 25 percent of all organ donors did not have insurance or the private funds to pay for the surgery and care, and therefore would not have been eligible to receive an organ had they needed one .
This data applies to U. As King et al. Though there is no legislation that prevents illegal immigrants from obtaining transplants in the United States, lack of insurance coverage accomplishes that end [7, 8].
It is this sort of indirect exclusion that leads to misunderstanding and distrust of the system. No comprehensive data on citizenship status of organ donors is available from procurement organizations, but there is detailed information available about the citizenship status of those awaiting transplant and those receiving organs.
From to only 2, of theorgan transplants were received by individuals of unknown or unreported citizenship, a mere 0. A compilation of volunteered citizenship information from deceased donors collected by UNOS and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network OPTN revealed that donors were of unknown citizenship and 7, donors were of unreported citizenship status, which accounted for a total of 2.
This number 7, offers an approximate number of organ donations from those of unknown immigrant status and provides reason to believe that more organs are obtained from illegal immigrants than are received by this same group.
Despite evidence that immigrants donate more organs than they receive, articles in the media sensationalize a few instances in which illegal immigrants have received organs . Will this biased portrayal, coupled with a general lack of access to organs, lead to fewer individuals donating a resource that is already in high demand and low supply?
Moreover, how can we justify allowing illegal immigrants to donate, but not receive, organs? The Justice Argument Justice is the basis for our political and judicial systems, though the practical application of being "just, impartial or fair"  is not often discussed.
John Rawls proposed that justice is reflected in standards set by people who act as though they were unaware of their own social standing .
People designing policy from behind this "veil of ignorance," as he calls it, act without self-regarding bias.
Even those altruistic individuals who would donate an organ with no expectation of reciprocity would be unlikely to design a system in which this one-way participation existed. Are there other frameworks for moral behavior that are satisfied by the current policy?immigrants, which I shall discuss below.
2 Before developing the arguments, let me briefly define my terms. UTILITARIANISM: FOR AND AGAINST, supra note 3, at Moreover, strict or absolute , ] The Morality of Immigration Policy SAN DIEGO LAW REVIEW By adopting a consequentialist approach, I emphatically do not dismiss the. Illegal Immigrants And Utilitarianism Illegal Immigrants With the rise of illegal immigrants, the United States has had difficulties solving the issue for a long time Hence, there’re many factors for the causes and solutions from different branches and .
For instance, some of the governments have intensified security in the borders to prevent illegal immigrants from entering the country. There are various theories that can be used to solve illegal immigration like Utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics.
This paper analyzes illegal immigration and the problems caused by it. In this paper I analyze the impact that immigration has on the culture of nations and on different categories of people. Firstly, I shall present the existing arguments in the literature focused on the effects of immigration on the culture of nations, to what extent the effects are negative or, on the contrary, positive.
Assess the issue of illegal immigration using a number of different ethical principles, such as the principles of rights, utilitarianism, and justice.
What does each principle have to say about the issue of illegal immigration? Utilitarianism . The main factors contributing to the decline to the immigration from Mexico—which accounts for 6 in 10 illegal immigrants in the United States—were the global economic crisis, the rise of a Mexican middle class, and the decline of fertility rates in Mexico.