This work was probably compiled by his disciples or disciples of his disciples. It was subsequently edited and shortened by Zhao Qi in the second century C. This version of the text was used by subsequent scholars and is the version available to us nowadays.
His precise dates are unknown, and extant sources contradict one another: The former figure is more plausible Goldin BCEwhich is known to contain serious distortions, especially in its treatment of famous philosophers Kern I, 3—35; and Liao Mingchun Sima Qian relates that Xunzi polished his voluminous writings in his old age, but they do not survive in his own recension.
The general consensus today is that Xunzi is a collection of predominantly authentic essays, but certainly not organized in a manner that Xun Kuang himself had authorized e.
There are also some chapters with generic instructional material, as well as poems and rhymed riddles that are rarely studied Knechtges First, the two keywords need to be unpacked. But in prosecuting this position, Xunzi uses xing in a fundamentally different sense: In effect, both Xunzi and Mencius argued that human beings all have the capacity to become good, even though some people develop this capacity and others do not Graham And if we achieve any goodness, it must be because of our artifice: For this reason, in addition to stylistic features that trouble some readers, the chapter is occasionally impugned as corrupt or inauthentic Robins —02; Zhou Chicheng Modes of Moral Self-Cultivation: Whereas Mencians have always emphasized looking inwards for moral direction—sometimes complicated by the acknowledgment that the heart can be corrupted—self-cultivation in the Xunzian style is inconceivable without looking outwards.
What are rituals and why did the sages institute them? If people follow their desires, then boundaries cannot contain them and objects cannot satisfy them.
Thus the Former Kings restrained them and established for them ritual and morality in order to divide them [into classes]. First, Xunzi elsewhere explicitly denies that an arbitrarily chosen set of rituals would be effective. The rituals of the sage kings confirm the distinctions that we are bound to make by nature the core text is Xunzi 5.
Indeed, if they did not, they would be mere instruments of expedience, not rituals. These dimensions become clear when Xunzi begins to discuss specific rituals and their purposes.
We observe regulations concerning funerary ceremonies and grave goods, for example, in order to learn how to avoid incivility and miserliness Oct 16, · Mencius (fourth century BCE) was a Confucian philosopher. Often referred to as the "Second Sage" of Confucianism (meaning second in importance only to Confucius himself), Mencius is best known for his claim that “human nature is good.”.
these ideals and beliefs also influenced Confucius. there is a difference between Taoist and Confucian notions of the Tao; the sayings of Confucius and Mencius came to pervade Chinese culture; his insight into human nature, e) his deep interest in how to live and how to respond to all things.
Confucius emphasized that individuals must go through a process of development to become gentlemen or leaders: “By nature, people are close to one another; through practice, they drift far apart.”.
Feb 09, · Confucius believes that each of them is interdependent and human should maintain the balance of them in order to ensure a smooth collaboration in human society.
On the other hand, Confucius emphasizes ancient arts like rites, music and writing. Differentiate Mencius and Confucius Class in Human Nature Chinese Mencius And Xunzi On Human Nature Essay Mencius and Xunzi on Human Nature Mencius and Xunzi both follow Confucian philosophy yet have a dramatically different understanding of human nature.
Additionally, the two philosophers make their arguments in strikingly different. Mencius, the fourth and longest text of the Sishu, contains the teachings of the revered Confucian scholar Mencius, who emphasized the essential goodness of human nature. Zhu Xi More About Mencius.
Certain issues have fascinated philosophers because they are universal and apply to all human beings regardless of class, gender, ethnicity, religion, or age. Mencius added to the Confucian teachings by addressing human nature and the right to govern. Previously, China had been ruled by two divergent schools of thought. + All Confucius. Aug 16, · Instead of dwelling on abstract speculations such as humanity’s condition in the state of nature, Confucius sought to understand the insight, and wisdom. In contrast to Mencius, Xunzi stressed that human nature is evil. Because he saw human (died c. ) essay “ Returning to Nature” that foreshadowed features of Song. However, Confucius follower, Mencius, elaborated about human virtue and good government, proclaiming the original goodness of human nature. Mencius thought humans were predisposed to doing good things because of the compassionate characteristics humans hold.