Marx's view of class originated from a series of personal interests relating to social alienation and human struggle, whereby the formation of class structure relates to acute historical consciousness. Political-economics also contributed to Marx's theories, centering on the concept of "origin of income" where society is divided into three sub-groups:
Communal system was the first and the lowest form of organization of people. It existed for thousands of years. Man started using primitive tools like sticks and stones for hunting and food gathering.
Gradually man improved these tools. He learned to make fire, cultivation and animal husbandry. In this system of very low level of forces of production, the relations of production were based on common ownership of the means of production. Therefore, these relations were based on mutual assistance and co-operation.
These relations were conditioned by the fact that people with their primitive implements could only withstand the mighty forces of nature together, collectively.
In such a situation, exploitation of man by man did not exist because of two reasons. Firstly, the tools used means of production were so simple that they could be reproduced by any one.
These were implements like spear, stick, bow and arrow etc. Hence no person or group of people had the monopoly of ownership over the tools.
Secondly, production was at a low scale. The people existed more or less on a subsistence lord. Their production was just sufficient to meet the needs of the people provided everybody worked.
Therefore it was a situation of no master and no servant. Gradually, with time man started perfecting his tools, his craft of producing and surplus production started taking place. This led to private property and primitive equality gave way to social inequality.
Thus, the first antagonistic classes, slaves and slave owners appeared. This is how the development of the forces of production led to the replacement of primitive communal system by slavery.
In the slave-owning society, primitive tools were perfected and bronze and iron tools replaced the stone and wooden implements. Large scale agriculture, live stock raising, mining and handicrafts developed.Marx: Capitalism and Alienation.
Karl Marx () grew up in Germany under the same conservative and oppressive conditions under which Kant and other German philosophers had to live.
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) and Philosophic Manuscripts of (), Marx identified four types of alienation that occur to the worker labouring under a capitalist system of industrial production.
but . Capitalism simplifies the class structure into two systems: the rich and the poor.
to each according to his need." Under this system, there is no longer the division of labor. Everyone will develop all of their talents. Whatever can serve the community best will be fostered. Karl Marx.
49 terms. MGT FINAL EXAM (SANNWALD) 35 terms. Marx’s sociology is in fact, sociology of class struggle. According to Bendex and Lipset, “A social class in Marx’s terms is any aggregate of persons who perform the same function in the organization of production.” According to Marx, “Class is the manifestation of economic differentiation.
This article provides information about the major features of capitalism on the basis of Karl Marx: Modern industry has established the world market that has given immense scope of development to commerce, navigation and communication by land.
Marx believes that alienation is a feature not just of capitalism, but of all earlier societies too, even before classes emerged.
Even in the earliest pre-class societies, humans were dominated by external forces, and in all class societies, the direct producers are under the control of a parasitical ruling class.