Beforethe grading scheme varied between examination boards, but typically there were "pass" grades of 1 to 6 and "fail" grades of 7 to 9. However the grades were not displayed on certificates. The CSE was graded on a numerical scale from 1 to 5, with 1 being the highest, and 5 being the lowest passing grade.
See also Section 7, Module 1. The teacher or a student would operate the keyboard, and the class would be asked to respond to what appeared on screen.
The teacher might use the computer, for example, as a stimulus for eliciting oral responses from the class. This approach worked very well with a variety of programs, e.
I used the full-class approach with a class who were reluctant speakers of the target language. I used the screen as a focus and, with the help of various games devised largely by Barry Jones Homerton College, Cambridgestudents' confidence grew and they proved to be much more willing to "have a go" than if there was no focus for their eyes and the eyes of the rest of the class.
I also used the full screen with the CopyWrite component of Graham Aqa june 2003 intermediate paper 1 Fun with Texts software see Section 8below to promote discussion about language, in addition to an ancient piece of software, produced by the ITMA group, called Clues, which enabled you to mark up the same text in lots of different ways, including colour coding and various forms of gapping.
This, too, made a discussion about grammar quite palatable. It was possible to obtain printouts of some of the markups no colour printers then! Here are two more ideas that date back to the early s: Lessons 10 and 11 on agreement and position of adjectives include sequences in which an adjective drifts across to a noun, slotting into the correct position either in front of it or behind it.
Camsoft German included sequences showing inverted word order in sentences beginning with a time phrase, and subordinate clause word order.
Both sequences made use of animation, showing the verb wandering to different parts of the sentence. It made inverted and subordinate clause word order look easy - which it is once you understand the rules. There were also programs that illustrated the position of prefixes of separable verbs.
Whole-class teaching went out of favour as computers became cheaper, and it is not unusual nowadays to find a school equipped with several networked computer labs, each one set up for a specific purpose. There is no doubt that the availability of this kind of computer lab has its advantages, but it can also lead to the "battery chicken" approach to language learning, which sounded the death-knell for the language laboratory Davies In addition, many teachers find it difficult to get regular access to a computer lab.
The advent of lower-priced, high-quality projection equipment and the interactive whiteboard see Section 4.
Computer labs still, however, have still continued to play an important role, as indicated by Heather Rendall in Section 5 belowheaded Teaching in the computer network room. Computer lab work is very effective in offering the intensive one-to-one practice that language learners need, as claimed by two of the contributors to Module 3.
Some teachers believe that they are just another techno-gimmick, "an overhead projector on steroids", while others are brimming over with enthusiasm for this new presentation medium.
The following sections take a look at interactive whiteboards and the software that you can use with them. There are also links to selected resources that are available free of charge or from companies spacialising in IWB software.
A selection of publications on IWBs can be found in Section 4. This is not so.
Any software can be used on an IWB - or on a stand-alone computer linked to a data projector, with the image projected on a standard wall screen: It's what you do with the software and how you interact with the class that makes the difference. We've known this for years, dating right back to the days of the BBC Micro and the large TV set, which were used for whole-class teaching in the s, when Chris Jones wrote an article with a title that says it all: We pick up this theme again in Module 2.
It can indeed be argued that interactive is a misnomer as applied to an IWB, insofar as it's not the board that is interactive, but the way in which the teacher uses it: Many teachers who are using IWBs are simply underutilising the technology.
Above all, you do need to adapt your presentation style. A skilled operator can work magic with an IWB, but an untrained teacher might just as well stick to a computer, data projector and wall screen - or just chalk and talk.
You do not necessarily have to pay a fortune for a special licence for software you intend to use for whole-class teaching.
There are many packages for which you only have to buy a single-user licence, providing that the software is installed only on one computer at a time.
If you wish to produce your own materials for use on an IWB, you can do a lot with electronic worksheets created with a word-processor or with presentations created with PowerPoint: Bear in mind that you may require a fair amount of preparation time if you want to produce something that is a real advance on what you can do with other media.(AQA June Intermediate Paper 1 NO Calculator) The diagram shows a spinner.
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