Jeanne d'Arc of China: This snippet is for sons and daughters of China! Teenager girl Xun Guan breaking out of the Wancheng city to borrow the relief troops in the late Western Jinn dynasty; Liu-Shao-shi riding into the barbarian army to rescue her husband in the late Western Jinn dynasty; teenager girl Shen Yunying breaking into Zhang Xianzhong's rebels on the horseback to avenge on father's death in the late Ming dynasty.
Monasticism originated in the East. It was introduced in the West during the 4th century and was developed in Gaul, mainly in the west St. Martin of Tours and southeast St.
In the 6th century the number of monasteries… Nature and significance Monastics have been instrumental in creating, preserving, and enhancing institutions of religious and secular learning and in transmitting cultural goods, artifactsand intellectual skills down through the generations.
Monastic institutions have also fulfilled medical, political, and military functions, though since the latter two have become completely secularized in most societies. A definition of monasticism that covers all its forms would be so broad that particulars would have to be relegated to the analysis of specific monastic systems.
Such a definition might be: Such behaviour derives from the example of religious and spiritual founders who interpreted more radically the tenets that apply to all believers or to the whole society.
Beyond such a statement, one can speak only of the principal characteristics of the monastic life and its institutions, since none of them is universal. Another characteristic, asceticismis universal, provided the term is defined widely enough so as to include all supererogatory voluntarily undertaken rather than wholly prescribed religious practices.
The truly universal characteristic of monasticism follows from its definition: Monasticism does not exist in societies that lack a written transmitted lore.
The following list of influential figures from world history comes from Michael H. Hart's book The A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in iridis-photo-restoration.com the book, Hart provides brief biographies of each of the individuals, as well as reasons for their ranking. How to Write a Critical Analysis. How to Write a Thematic Essay. As I learned more about Buddhism, I realized it is not an organized religion; more of a way of thinking. It has withstood the test of time, and deserves respect for that. Religion, if Buddhism is one of them, is one of the things that must abide in this world. Buddhism. Criticism of religion is criticism of the ideas, Islam, Taoism, Buddhism and many others, it is not always clear to whom the criticisms are aimed at or to what extent they are applicable to other religions. Criticism of religious concepts a meta analysis of 35 surveys another review of papers and the handbook of religion. Surveys.
Nonliterate societies cannot have monastic institutions, because the monastic responds to an established written body of religious doctrine, which has undergone criticism and then generated countercriticism in a dialectic process that presupposes a literate, codified manipulation of the doctrine.
The monastic founders and their successors may either support or oppose the official religious tradition, but the presence of such a tradition is indispensable as the matrix of all monastic endeavour.
The ego with which the layperson and the seeking neophyte identifies is not the true self, which must be discovered or uncovered. Barriers—differently conceived as matter, individuated mind, or a soul- mind aggregate defiled by sin, ignorance, and perversion—must be broken through, or a veil lifted, so that the true self, the primordial spirit, may shine forth.
In most traditions this breakthrough is held to be unattainable through a conventionally good life in society, and thus a new approach must be sought. The body and the mind, which are part or all of the impediment, have to be controlled, disciplinedand chastised; hence, monastics advocate either asceticism or a set of psychophysical practices that differ radically from the normal routines of life.
Spiritual perfection The quest for spiritual intensification is elitist—even when, as within Christian monastic orders, humility is required. Withdrawal from society is necessary because the instrumentalities of perfection cannot normally be acquired and activated in the surroundings of everyday life.
The basis of monastic life is a set of spiritual precepts that either articulate the supreme value or provide support for the body and the mind on their journey toward whatever supreme consummation may be envisioned.
Intense contemplation, often accompanied by physical rigours, constitutes ascetic practice—i.Section 4. Buddhism: Buddhism, a major world religion, founded in northeastern India and based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who is known as the Buddha, Each of the settled communities that developed later was independent and democratically organized.
Buddhism originated in what is today modern India, where it grew into an organized religion practiced by monks, nuns, and lay people.
Its beliefs were written down forming a large canon. Buddhist images were also devised to be worshiped in sacred spaces. Religion. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download.
Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.
Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from. Criticism of religion is criticism of the ideas, Islam, Taoism, Buddhism and many others, it is not always clear to whom the criticisms are aimed at or to what extent they are applicable to other religions.
Criticism of religious concepts a meta analysis of 35 surveys another review of papers and the handbook of religion. Surveys. A Critical Analysis of Buddhism. Challenges to the Translation of the Pali Canon, And Some Nikayan Buddhist Concepts, Beliefs and Practices An institution that cannot stand up to peer review is a cult.
A religion that does not recognize the value of gnosis is a dead .