Hence we start with a general idea about the topic and subsequently arrive to the main idea. The thesis should be a clear, one-sentence explanation of your position in an unambiguous manner. Following the thesis, a mini-outline is proffered which previews the examples you will use to support your thesis in the rest of the essay.
It should be as brief as possible while still conveying the topic or problem treated. The title should contain significant words suitable for classifying or indexing the paper.
The name s of author s should be followed by affiliation s and address es. We recommend that a named author should have contributed significantly to the methods, results or writing of the paper. Authorship is somewhat like signing or cosigning a loan.
The abstract or summary is critically important as it is likely to be read by 10 to times more people than is the entire paper Landes, It is not an introduction, nor a table of contents, and not a list of what will be discussed in the paper.
It is a summary of the essential results of the work described in the paper, including its principal conclusions.
Enough background information should be included in the Abstract to make the results meaningful to the reader. Abstracts vary in length depending on the nature and length of the paper.
However, they usually range from about 75 to about words. The Abstract is similar to the Conclusions section. Short notes or commentaries may not need an abstract. This is extremely variable but usually is comprised of several sections.
They may deal with, for instance: Often it is suitable, or even necessary, to discuss the significance or limitations of your study rather than just presenting it without comment. Sometimes this discussion may be incorporated into various sections of the main body; sometimes it may be combined with the Conclusions.
We are provided an opportunity in the Discussion section to be a bit editorial, qualitative, or even speculative. The important results or conclusions of your paper should be synthesized here into several concisely phrased sentences. Point form may be suitable in some cases.
New ideas or comments should not be introduced in the Conclusions as you are summarizing what has been shown previously in the paper. Recall that the Conclusion section will resemble the Abstract. Frequently, the study may have some unresolved issues or might raise new ideas which could be the subject of future research.
These points can be briefly outlined in the Future Work section. It is thoughtful to express our appreciation to these individuals or groups. Sometimes agreements or contracts concerning the work may require a formal acknowledgement, especially if there was funding involved.
If an individual has contributed significantly to the technical content of a paper, via observational data, analysis, ideas regarding methodology, procedures, or detailed writing, then coauthorship may be more appropriate than just an acknowledgement.
All statements of an assertive nature that are not m o re or less axioms should be proved or referenced. As we are usually building on the work of others or using their efforts, it is essential to acknowledge these sources as completely as possible.
Those references cited in the text, usually by author and year, are generally listed alphabetically then chronologically. Sometimes they may be provided as footnotes or, especially in the engineering literature, numbered in the order that they occur in the text.
Background literature that is not explicitly cited can be listed separately under some heading like References for General Reading. An appendix contains material that is important enough to be included in the paper but not critical to understanding the main thrusts of the study.
Similarly, if a secondary point requires lengthy or separate discussion that could detract from the continuity of the text, it could be better placed in an Appendix. Supporting mathematics or derivations are often put in an Appendix.
These should have captions or headings which enable them to be understood, in their essentials, independently of the text of the paper.
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